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Expressionismen på svenska

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Expressionismen (av franskans expressionnisme, av latinets expressio "uttryck") var en stilriktning inom bildkonst, arkitektur, litteratur, teater, film och musik under 1900-talet. Inom konsten används termen expressionism för konstverk, där verkligheten har förvrängts i syfte att ge uttryck för konstnärens känslor eller inre föreställningsvärld. Inom måleriet förstärks t.ex. den känslomässiga effekten av ett medvetet bruk av starka färger, en förvrängning av formerna o.s.v. I den betydelsen kallas ibland målningar av El Greco och Matthias Grünewald expressionistiska, även om termen vanligtvis begränsas till att gälla konstnärer från de senaste hundra åren. Således ses Vincent van Gogh inom måleriet och August Strindberg inom litteraturen som den moderna expressionismens föregångare. De mest medvetna expressionistiska rörelserna grundades i Tyskland i början av 1900-talet. Mest berömda är Die Brücke och Der Blaue Reiter. Inflytandet från Edvard Munch var i detta sammanhang ansenligt. Andra betydande expressionister är Oskar Kokoschka, Chaim Soutine, Georges Rouault och Max Beckmann. Emellanåt används termen expressionism även om arkitektur, i synnerhet om Peter Behrens och Erich Mendelsohns byggnadsverk.

Den här artikeln används med tillstånd av GNU Free Documentation License. Texten är hämtad från den svenska Wikipedia-artikeln "Expressionism".

Impressionismen på svenska

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Impressionismen är en konstriktning inom måleriet och kan översättas med "intryckskonst". Impressionismen uppstod i Frankrike på 1860-talet, och impressionistiska arbeten visades för första gången på Salon des Refusés 1863. Impressionisterna hyllade landskapet sett i det naturliga ljuset. De fascinerades av förhållandet mellan ljus och färg, och målade fritt i rena primärfärger. De var också radikala i sitt motivval och undvek traditionella historiska, religiösa och romantiska ämnen för att istället koncentrera sig på landskap och vardagsscener. Man sökte fånga det omedelbara intrycket av verkligheten, de snabbt flyende ögonblicken och dess stämningar. De främsta företrädarna är Claude Monet, Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley och Camille Pissarro. Rörelsens namn är inspirerat av Monets målning Impression - Soluppgång (1872). Den första impressionistutställningen hölls 1874. Monet, Renoir och Sisley hade studerat tillsammans och bildade den starkast sammansvetsade gruppen. Under 1870-talet mötte gruppen mycket motstånd, och deras utställningar hade i allmänhet ingen framgång. De impressionistiska målarna var inte överens om vilka som skulle få ställa ut. Degas påpekade att verk av konventionella målare skulle göra utställningarna mera tillgängliga för allmänheten. Manet ställde aldrig ut tillsammans med impressionisterna, fast hans verk utövade stort inflytande på dem. Deras intresse för ljusets inverkan på landskapet accepterades till en början inte. Impressionisterna valde även en okonventionell tid på dagen för sitt målande - klara, soliga eftermiddagar istället för motiv i skymningen eller tidigt på morgonen. På 1880-talet hade impressionisternas ämnesval blivit vanligare och rörelsen vunnit ett långsamt erkännande och framgång. Men med tiden blev impressionismen allt mindre enhetlig och allt mindre en gemensam stil: Monet fortsatte att extremt nogsamt analysera sina visuella intryck, och Sisley fortsatte att måla landskap. Renoir däremot övergick till en stil som betonade linjen, hade framgång som porträttmålare och började måla ett stort antal figurmålningar, framför allt akter. Pissarro tog intryck av Seurats divisionism och ställde ut verk i denna stil från 1886, året för den sista impressionistutställningen, där Seurat och Signac också medverkade. Andra impressionister var Jean-Frédéric Bazille, Gustave Caillebotte, Mary Cassatt och Berthe Morisot.

Den här artikeln används med tillstånd av GNU Free Documentation License. Texten är hämtad från den svenska Wikipedia-artikeln "Impressionism"

Expressionism in English

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Expressionism is the tendency of an artist to distort reality for emotional effect. Expressionism is exhibited in many art forms, including painting, literature, film, architecture and music. Additionally, the term often implies emotional angst - the number of cheerful expressionist works is relatively small.

Origin of the term
Although it is used as term to reference, there has never been movement called 'Expressionism'. The term is usually linked to paintings and graphic work in Germany at the turn of the century which challenged the academic traditions, particularly through Die Brücke and Der Blauer Reiter
More generally it refers to art that is expressive of intense emotion. It is arguable that all artists are expressive but there is a long line of art production in which heavy emphasis is placed on communication through emotion. Such art often occurs during time of social upheaval, and through the tradition of graphic art we have a powerful and moving record of turmoil in Europe from the 15th century on: - Reformation, Peasant Wars, Spanish Occupation of Netherlands, The Rape, pillage and disaster associated with countless periods of chaos and oppression are presented in the documents of the printmaker. Often the work is unimpressive aesthetically, but almost without exception has the capacity to move us to strong emotions with the drama and often horror of the scenes depicted.
The term was coined by Czech art historian Antonin Matejcek in 1910 as the opposite of impressionism: "An Expressionist wishes, above all, to express himself [sic]....[An Expressionist rejects] immediate perception and builds on more complex psychic structures....Impressions and mental images that pass through mental peoples soul as through a filter which rids them of all substantial accretions to produce their clear essence [...and] are assimilated and condense into more general forms, into types, which he transcribes through simple short-hand formulae and symbols." (Gordon, 1987)

Some of the movement's leading painters in the early 20th century were:
Max Beckmann, Erich Heckel, Wassily Kandinsky, Oskar Kokoschka, August Macke, Franz Marc, Otto Mueller, Elfriede Lohse-Wächtler, Edvard Munch, Emil Nolde, Max Pechstein, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Buster Soutine and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
There were a number of Expressionist groups in painting, including the Blaue Reiter and Die Brücke. Later in the 20th century, the movement influenced a large number of other artists, including the so-called abstract expressionists.

Expressionism is also found in other art forms - the novels of Franz Kafka are often described as expressionist, for example, and there was a concentrated Expressionist movement in early 20th century German theatre centred around Georg Kaiser and Ernst Toller.
In music, Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern and Alban Berg, the members of the Second Viennese School, wrote pieces described as expressionist (Schoenberg also made expressionist paintings). Other composers who followed them, such as Ernst Krenek, are often considered as a part of the expressionist movement in music. What distinguished these composers from their contemporaries such as Maurice Ravel, George Gershwin and Igor Stravinsky is that expressionist composers self-consciously used atonality to free their artform from the traditional tonality. They also sought to express the subconscious, the 'inner necessity' and suffering through their highly dissonant musical language. Erwartung and Die Glückliche Hand, by Schoenberg, and Wozzeck, an opera by Alban Berg (based on a play by Georg Büchner), are example of expressionist works.
In architecture, the work of Eric Mendelsohn comes under this category. An important building by him under this style is the Einstein Tower in Potsdam, Germany. There is an organic quality to buildings using this approach. Some sculptors also used this style, as for example Ernst Barlach. There was also an expressionist movement in film, often referred to as German Expressionism.

There was never a group of artists that called themselves Expressionists.
The movement is primarily German. The group Der Blaue Reiter was based in Munich and Die Brücke was based originally in Dresden (although some later moved to Berlin). Die Brücke was active for a longer period than Der blaue Reiter which was only truly together for a year (1912). The expressionists had many influences, among them Munch, Vincent van Gogh, and African art. They also came to know the work being done by the Fauves in Paris.
It is important to realize that although the Fauves and the Expressionists both used bright colours, they used them for distinct purposes. The Fauves hoped to achieve beauty, while the Expressionists hoped to achieve emotion through them. The importance of color was its expressive power, no longer was the subject the medium which led to drama or sentiment in the work of art, but it was the use of color and lines that were the expressive and powerful means.
The "head" of Der Blaue Reiter, Kandinsky, would take this a step further. He believed that with simple colors and shapes the spectator could perceive the moods and feelings in the paintings, therefore he made the important jump to Abstraction, changing 20th century art.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Expressionism".

Impressionism in English

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Impressionism was a 19th century art movement, that began as a loose association of Paris-based artists who began publicly exhibiting their art in the 1860s. The name of the movement is derived from Claude Monet's Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant). Critic Louis Leroy inadvertently coined the term in a satiric review published in Le Charivari. The influence of Impressionist thought spread beyond the art world, leading to Impressionist music and Impressionist literature. Characteristics of impressionist painting include visible brushstrokes, light colors, open composition, emphasis on light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, and unusual visual angles. Impressionism also describes art done in this style, but outside of the late 19th century time period.

Overview
Radicals in their time, early impressionists broke the picture-making rules of academic painting. They began by painting driven by colours, rather than by line, drawing from the work of painters such as Eugene Delacroix. They also began from unique working methods, such as painting outside of the studio for subjects such as the still life and portrait. The techniques of impressionism gradually grew more specific to the movement, and encompassed what its adherents argued was a different way of seeing. They painted "en plein air" (outdoors) rather than in a studio as was the custom, capturing the momentary and transient aspects of sunlight. By the last years of the 19th century, the public came to believe that these artists had captured a fresh and original vision that was highly skilled, even if it did not meet with approval of the artistic establishment. The impressionists looked to beauty in candid poses and compositions, in the play of light and in a bright and varied use of colour. Impressionist paintings feature short, "broken" brush strokes of pure, untinted and unmixed colour. Compositions are simplified and innovative, and the emphasis is on overall effect rather than upon details. The brushstrokes increasingly became visible and part of the composition, as opposed to the then current technique of having an almost smooth surface of the canvas without visible brush strokes. Impressionism rose at the same time that other painters were also exploring methods of painting that moved away from the subjects, forms and norms that dominated the art market at that time, for example Edvard Munch. By placing the center of artistic creation as the eye that views the subject, rather than the subject, and by creating a welter of techniques and forms, Impressionism became seminal to various movements in painting which would come after, including Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, Cubism and individual painters that were not part of an exact school, such as Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh and Paul Cezanne.

Beginnings
In an atmosphere of change as Emperor Napoleon III rebuilt Paris and waged war, the Académie des beaux-arts dominated the French art scene in the middle of the 19th century. Art at the time was considered a conservative enterprise whose innovations fell within the Académie's defined borders. The Académie set the standards for French painting. In addition to dictating the content of paintings (historical subjects, religious themes, and portraits were valued), the Académie commanded which techniques artists used. They valued somber, conservative colours. Refined images, mirroring reality when closely examined, were esteemed. The Académie encouraged artists to eliminate all traces of brush strokes — essentially isolating art from the artist's personality, emotions, and working techniques. The Académie held an annual art show — Salon de Paris, and artists whose work displayed in the show won prizes and garnered commissions to create more art. Only art selected by the Académie jury exhibited in the show. The standards of the juries about suitable art for the salon reflected the values of the Académie. The young artists painted in a lighter and brighter style than most of the generation before them, extending the realism style of Gustave Courbet, Winslow Homer and the Barbizon school. They submitted their art to the Salon, and the juries rejected the pieces. A core group of them, Claude Monet, Pierre Auguste Renoir and Alfred Sisley, studied under Charles Gleyre. The three of them became friends and often painted together. In 1863, the jury rejected The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe) by Édouard Manet primarily because it depicted a nude woman with two clothed men on a picnic. According to the jury nudes were acceptable in historical and allegorical paintings, but to show them in common settings was forbidden. Manet felt humiliated by the sharply worded rejection of the jury, which set off a firestorm among many French artists. Although Manet did not consider himself an impressionist, he led discussions at Café Guerbois where the impressionists gathered, and influenced the explorations of the artistic group. After seeing the rejected works in 1863, Emperor Napoleon III decreed that the public be allowed to judge the work themselves, and the Salon des Refusés (Salon of the Refused) was organized. For years art critics rebuked the Salon des Refusés, and in 1874 the impressionists (though not yet known by the name) organized their own exhibition. After seeing the show, critic Louis Leroy (an engraver, painter, and successful playwright), wrote a scathing review in the Le Charivari newspaper. Targeting a painting by a then obscure artist he titled his article, The Exhibition of the Impressionists. Leroy declared that Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant) by Claude Monet was at most a sketch and could hardly be termed a finished work. Leroy wrote, in the form of a dialog between viewers, Impression — I was certain of it. I was just telling myself that, since I was impressed, there had to be some impression in it … and what freedom, what ease of workmanship! Wallpaper in its embryonic state is more finished than that seascape. The term "impressionists" gained favor with the artists, not as a term of derision, but as a badge of honor. The techniques and standards within the movement varied, but the spirit of rebellion and independence bound the movement together.

Impressionist techniques
Short, thick strokes of paint in a sketchy way, allowing the painter to capture and emphasize the essence of the subject rather than its details. They left brush strokes on the canvas, adding a new dimension of familiarity with the personality of the artist for the viewer to enjoy. Colors with as little pigment mixing as possible, allowing the eye of the viewer to optically mix the colors as they looked at the canvas, and providing a vibrant experience for the viewer. Impressionists did not shade (mix with black) their colours in order to obtain darker pigments. Instead, when the artists needed darker shades, they mixed with complementary colours. (Black was used, but only as a colour in its own right.) They painted wet paint into the wet paint instead of waiting for successive applications to dry, producing softer edges and intermingling of color. Impressionist avoided the use of thin paints to create glazes which earlier artists built up carefully to produce effects. Rather, the impressionists put paint down thickly and did not rely upon layering. Impressionists discovered or emphasized aspects of the play of natural light, including an acute awareness of how colours reflect from object to object. In outdoor paintings, they boldly painted shadows with the blue of the sky as it reflected onto surfaces, giving a sense of freshness and openness that was not captured in painting previously. (Blue shadows on snow inspired the technique.) They worked "en plein air" (outdoors)

Previous artists occasionally used these techniques, but impressionists employed them constantly. Earlier examples are found in the works of Frans Hals, Peter Paul Rubens, John Constable, Theodore Rousseau, Gustave Courbet, Camille Corot, Eugene Boudin, and Eugène Delacroix. Impressionists took advantage of the mid-century introduction of premixed paints in tubes (resembling modern toothpaste tubes) which allowed artists to work more spontaneously both outdoors and indoors. Previously, each painter made his or her own paints by grinding and mixing dry pigment powders with linseed oil.

Content and composition
Even though, historically, painting was viewed as primarily a way to depict historical and religious subjects in a rather formal manner, painters portrayed everyday subjects. Many 17th century Dutch painters, like Jan Steen, focused on common subjects, but their works showed the influences of traditional composition in arrangement of the scene. When impressionism began, there was interest among the artists in mundane subject matter, and a new method of capturing images became available. Photography was gaining popularity, and as cameras became more portable, photographs became more candid. Photography inspired impressionists to capture the moment, not only in the fleeting lights of a landscape, but in the day-to-day lives of people. Photography and popular Japanese art prints (Japonism) combined to introduce to impressionists odd "snapshot" angles, and unconventional compositions. Edgar Degas' The Dance Class (La classe de danse) shows both influences. A dancer is caught in adjusting her costume, and the lower right quadrant of the picture contains empty floor space.

Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism developed from Impressionism. By the 1880s several artists were experimenting with expressive qualities of color, pattern, form and line: Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, Georges Seurat and Paul Cezanne. This was known as the start of post-impressionism. Sometimes post-impressionist artists are called impressionists, although they were in a different movement.

Painters known as impressionists
Lucy A. Bacon, Frédéric Bazille, Jean Beraud, Mary Cassatt, Gustave Caillebotte, Paul Cezanne, Lovis Corinth, Edgar Degas, Paul-Henri DuBerger, George Wharton Edwards, Frederick Carl Frieseke, Eva Gonzalès, Armand Guillaumin, Nazmi Ziya Güran, Childe Hassam, Johan Jongkind, Laura Muntz Lyall, Max Liebermann, Édouard Manet (although he did not regard himself as an Impressionist, he is generally considered one), Willard Metcalf, Claude Monet, Berthe Morisot, William McGregor Paxton, Lilla Cabot Perry, Camille Pissarro, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Theodore Robinson, Zinaida Serebryakova, Alfred Sisley, John Henry Twachtman, J. Alden Weir, Konstantin Yuon

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Impressionism".